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Rockefeller Archive Center;
This report examines the activities carried out by the Regional Office of Río de la Plata and Andean Region of the Rockefeller Foundation to upgrade the training of public health professionals and staff from 1941 to 1949. According to the Rockefeller Foundation, special skills and training were essential to address the challenges posed by the eradication of epidemics and pandemics, necessary public works to enhance public health. The regional office was based in Argentina, Chile, Perú, Ecuador, Bolivia, Uruguay, and Paraguay.
Center for Economic and Policy Research;
Since July of 2018, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has disbursed more than $20 billion of a $56.3 billion loan package to Argentina. The Argentine government is now the largest holder of the IMF's General Resources Account (GRA) funds. This paper looks at how the policies that the Fund and the Argentine government have agreed upon in their June Stand-By Arrangement (SBA) are expected to lead to an economic recovery; and whether they are likely to succeed.
Rockefeller Archive Center;
On June 28th, 1966, the constitutional Argentinian President Arturo Illia was overthrown by a military putsch led by Lt. General Juan Carlos Onganía. The Congress elected in 1963 and all political parties were dissolved. The Rector, the Senate of the University of Buenos Aires (UBA), and the Councils of most of the University Schools severely condemned the putsch, with its implied breakdown of all democratic procedures. On July 29th, the Universities were put under the direct control of the military Government and their autonomy was curtailed. That evening the Federal Police invaded the School of Exact and Natural Sciences (Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, FCEN) of UBA, brutally attacking the professors and students who had gathered and taking hundreds into police stations for several days. Similar invasions were perpetrated in the School of Architecture and in the School of Philosophy and Letters (FFyL) of the UBA. The Dean and Vice-Dean of the FCEN and the Dean of the School of Architecture were beaten. This episode, known as the "Night of the Long Sticks" (Noche de los bastones largos, or NBL) has been the object of numerous reports and studies.
Economist Intelligence Unit, The;
Fixing Food is an Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) report on food system sustainability globally, spanning agriculture, nutrition, and food loss and waste. It draws on an interview programme with experts from the academic, public and private sectors and is published alongside the Food Sustainability Index (FSI), a quantitative and qualitative benchmarking model, which ranks 25 countries according to their food system sustainability. The project was developed with the Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition (BCFN).
Rockefeller Archive Center;
During my three-week stay at the Rockefeller Archive Center in September 2015 I made substantial progress on my research on three independent academic centers in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile. The main purpose of my research was to document and analyze the financial support these centers received from the Ford Foundation in the 1970s and 1980s. The three centers are the CEDES in Argentina, the CEBRAP in Brazil, and the CIEPLAN in Chile. Thanks to RAC Archivist Lucas Buresch, I was able to access an important set of documents that will allow me to clarify, in forthcoming publications, one of the most interesting episodes in the recent history of Latin American political and social sciences in the context of dictatorial regimes. In that period of severe academic and institutional restrictions (universities intervened, schools shut down, academics fleeing into exile), the Ford Foundation's aid and protection helped to promote collaboration between these Latin American research centers, and was essential to their functioning.
Worldwide Initiatives for Grantmaker Support (WINGS);
El concepto de inversión social privada (ISP) ha tomado fuerza en los últimos años, sobre todo en Argentina, Brasil y Colombia, y se ha instalado como guía en el mundo fundacional y empresarial. El predominio conceptual de la ISP se logró,en general, contraponiéndolo a la filantropía, otorgándole grandes virtudes a la primera y muchas limitaciones a esta última. Solo recientemente la filantropía está empezando a recuperar un valor positivo, e incluso en algunos casos, a ser entendida con el significado que suele darle una gran parte de la comunidad internacional.
Hauser Institute For Civil Society at Harvard Kennedy School;
Centuries of religious traditions, cultural norms, political histories, and economic conditions have shaped today's environment for private giving and social investment in Latin America. While the region's wealthy individuals have a long history of charitable giving, the relatively recent emergence of stable democracies, steady economic growth, and accumulation of personal wealth have provided a foundation for accelerated philanthropic activity. At the same time, cutbacks in government services, acute inequalities, and persistent poverty in some countries have underscored the need for private social investment to help address social and economic development.
This study describes the philanthropic environment and illuminates the important and inspirational social investments of wealthy individuals in six Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. It provides new insight into both the soul and practice of philanthropy in the region, and, optimistically, will help to encourage others to invest private philanthropic capital for the common public good.
Siglos de tradiciones religiosas, normas culturales, historias políticas y condiciones económicas han moldeado el entorno actual de la filantropía privada y la inversión social en América Latina. Si bien las personas de alto nivel patrimonial de la región tienen una larga trayectoria de donaciones benéficas, el surgimiento relativamente reciente de democracias estables, crecimiento económico y acumulación de riqueza personal han sentado las bases para la aceleración de las actividades filantrópicas. Al mismo tiempo, en algunos países, las reducciones en los servicios gubernamentales, la desigualdad severa y la pobreza persistente han recalcado la necesidad de inversión social privada para la promoción del desarrollo social y económico.
Este estudio describe el entorno filantrópico y las importantes e inspiradoras inversiones sociales de las personas de alto nivel patrimonial en seis países latinoamericanos: Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, México y Perú. También ofrece una mirada nueva al alma y al ejercicio de la filantropía en la región, con la esperanza de que sirva para alentar a otros a invertir capital filantrópico privado en el bien común.
Hauser Institute For Civil Society at Harvard Kennedy School;
Séculos de tradições religiosas, normas culturais, histórias políticas e condições econômicas moldaram o ambiente atual para doações e investimentos sociais privados na América Latina. Embora as pessoas com patrimônio elevado da região tenham uma longa história de fazer doações à caridade, o surgimento relativamente recente de democracias estáveis, o crescimento econômico firme e a acumulação de patrimônio pessoal criaram as bases para uma maior atividade filantrópica. Ao mesmo tempo, cortes nos serviços públicos, as desigualdades e a pobreza persistente em alguns países ressaltaram a necessidade de investimentos sociais privados, para alavancar o desenvolvimento social e econômico.
Este estudo descreve o ambiente filantrópico e ilustra os importantes e inspiradores investimentos sociais de pessoas com patrimônio elevado em seis países da América Latina; Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colômbia, México e Peru. Ele dá novas percepções sobre a alma e a prática de filantropia na região e, em termos otimistas, ajudará a encorajar outras pessoas a investirem capital filantrópico privado para o bem público.
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace;
There is no shortage of international commentary on Brazil's nuclear policy, especially its advanced nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear submarine program. But remarkably little attention is paid to Brazilian voices on these issues. Brazilians paint a picture of an emerging power seeking nuclear independence and searching for its role in the global order.
The aim here is to present these lesser-known Brazilian perspectives as accurately as an outsider can feasibly do. To help fill the void, the author had numerous conversations over two years with Brazilian policy experts, academics, former and current officials, and representatives of the nuclear industry. Unless otherwise noted, this report draws on personal interviews conducted in Brasília, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Campinas, and Washington, DC, in 2012 -- 2013. Critical analysis and external voices provide counterarguments or highlight notable gaps in perceptions between Brazilian and external viewpoints, but by and large the objective is to relay Brazilian views on the state of its nuclear program.
World Resources Institute (WRI);
Developing countries are receiving new financial and technical support to design and implement programs that reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (referred to as REDD+). Reducing emissions from forest cover change requires transparent, accountable, inclusive, and coordinated systems and institutions to govern REDD+ programs.
Two multilateral initiatives -- the World Bank-administered Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) and the United Nations Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (UN-REDD Programme) -- are supporting REDD+ countries to become "ready" for REDD+ by preparing initial strategy proposals, developing institutions to manage REDD+ programs, and building capacity to implement REDD+ activities.
This paper reviews 32 REDD+ readiness proposals submitted to these initiatives to understand overall trends in how eight elements of readiness (referred to in this paper as readiness needs) are being understood and prioritized globally. Specifically, we assess whether the readiness proposals (i) identify the eight readiness needs as relevant for REDD+, (ii) discuss challenges and options for addressing each need, and (iii) identify next steps to be implemented in relation to each need. Our analysis found that the readiness proposals make important commitments to developing effective, equitable, and well-governed REDD+ programs. However, in many of the proposals these general statements have not yet been translated into clear next steps.
Colectivo de Estudios Droges y Derechos (CEDD);
In Latin America, trafficking cocaine so it can be sold to someone who wants to use it is more serious than raping a woman or deliberately killingyour neighbor. While it may seem incredible, that is the conclusion of arigorous study of the evolution of criminal legislation in the region, which shows that countries' judicial systems mete out harsher penalties for traffickingeven modest amounts of drugs than for acts as heinous as sexua lassault or murder.
How have we reached such an unjust and irrational point? In recent decades, especially the 1980s, Latin American countries, influenced by aninternational prohibitionist model, fell -- ironically -- into what we mightmetaphorically call an addiction to punishment.
Addiction creates the need to consume more and more drugs, whichhave less and less effect; ultimately, the problematic user simply consumesdrugs to avoid withdrawal. Drug legislation in Latin America seems to have followed a similar path. Countries have an ever-growing need to add crimes and increase the penalties for drug trafficking, supposedly to control an expanding illegal market, while this increasingly punitive approach has less and less effect on decreasing the supply and use of illegal drugs.
This report explores whether the recent evolution of criminal legislation in Latin American countries with regard to drug-related conducts respects these minimal guarantees to which criminal law should be subject, and especially whether that criminal legislation can be considered proportionate to the harm caused by prohibited conducts. Ultimately, the question is whether the crimes and punishments outlined in national legislation are proportionate. If the answer is no, the conclusion should be that they may even be unconstitutional within the framework of a constitutional state.
To address this question, the report explores the recent development of criminal laws on drug-related crime in seven Latin American countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, Peru and Mexico. These countries were chosen based on two basic criteria. First, they are of academic importance, because they have different drug-related problems, different geographic locations, diverse contexts and different political systems. According to traditional categorization, Colombia, Peru and Bolivia are considered producer countries; Mexico and even Brazil are considered trans-shipment countries. They also represent the different regions of Latin America,from the Southern Cone to the furthest Spanish-speaking country in North America.
This report has three main parts. The first provides a conceptual and methodological overview of the elements that form the basis of the analysis.The second describes the principal recent trends in criminal drug legislation in Latin America. The third analyzes the proportionality of drug-related crimes and punishment in the countries, comparing them with penalties for other serious crimes, followed by some conclusions.