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this report is one component of a wide-ranging study on the education of secondary school teachers in sub-Saharan Africa. It informs and provides direct input into the larger study, which culminates in an Overview Report. The Overview Report is one of 13 background papers which contribute to a comprehensive study of secondary education in Africa (SEA) coordinated by the Mastercard Foundation and supported by a number of education partners operating across the continent. Rwanda is one of four case studies selected for this research. The study's theoretical framework was developed out of the Literature Review, which also produced a set of research questions (detailed in Appendix 2) that guided the work of all components, including this case study. Data for the case study was derived from academic and other literature, as well as interviews with key role players in the field of teacher education in Rwanda. These role players include government officials responsible for teacher education on a national and/or regional basis, teacher educators responsible for initial teacher education (ITE) and Continuous Professional Development (CPD), and teacher unions. Face-to-face interviews were conducted where possible, but some actors provided information via telephonic or electronic means.
Doris Duke Charitable Foundation;
Integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) can reduce under-5 morbidity and mortality in low-income settings. A program to strengthen IMCI practices through Mentorship and Enhanced Supervision at Health centers (MESH) was implemented in two rural districts in eastern Rwanda in 2010. We estimated cost per improvement in quality of care as measured by the difference in correct diagnosis and correct treatment at baseline and 12 months of MESH. Costs of developing and implementing MESH were estimated in 2011 United States Dollars (USD) from the provider perspective using both top-down and bottom-up approaches, from programmatic financial records and site-level data. Improvement in quality of care attributed to MESH was measured through case management observations (n = 292 cases at baseline, 413 cases at 12 months), with outcomes from the intervention already published. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess uncertainty under different assumptions of quality of care and Integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) can reduce under-5 morbidity and mortality in low-income settings. A program to strengthen IMCI practices through Mentorship and Enhanced Supervision at Health centers (MESH) was implemented in two rural districts in eastern Rwanda in 2010. We estimated cost per improvement in quality of care as measured by the difference in correct diagnosis and correct treatment at baseline and 12 months of MESH. Costs of developing and implementing MESH were estimated in 2011 United States Dollars (USD) from the provider perspective using both top-down and bottom-up approaches, from programmatic financial records and site-level data. Improvement in quality of care attributed to MESH was measured through case management observations (n = 292 cases at baseline, 413 cases at 12 months), with outcomes from the intervention already published. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess uncertainty under different assumptions of quality of care andpatient volume. The total annual cost of MESH was US$ 27,955.74 and the average cost added by MESH per IMCI patient was US$1.06. Salary and benefits accounted for the majority of total annual costs (US$22,400 /year). Improvements in quality of care after 12 months of MESH implementation cost US$2.95 per additional child correctly diagnosed and $5.30 per additional child correctly treated. The incremental costs per additional child correctly diagnosed and child correctly treated suggest that MESH could be an affordable method for improving IMCI quality of care elsewhere in Rwanda and similar settings. Integrating MESH into existing supervision systems would further reduce costs, increasing potential for spread.
This situational analysis is about school to work transitions (SWT) in the sub-Saharan African context. We focus in particular on the transition from secondary education to work, including both general secondary education and secondary-level technical and vocational education and training (TVET). Secondary education is often framed as a conduit into tertiary education, but for many youths it is not. It is the last step in their educational trajectory, before or during which they may make the transition to work. This study is about how to best prepare youth enrolled in secondary school to transition to work and navigate a pathway to an employment trajectory that eventually leads to improved lives. We aim to provide a framework to structure thinking around school to work transitions, outline the context, identify the scope and the gaps in the knowledge base, and provide recommendations to guide future programming and policy on school to work transitions
This background paper explores the dynamics that affect transitions from primary to lower secondary school, with a focus on equity. It forms part of series of papers contributing to a broader initiative of tracking the demand and supply sides factors that influence access to secondary education and prepare African youth for the future of work. Whilst case studies have been drawn from Ghana and Rwanda to assess their strengths and weaknesses to educational reforms, emphasis is on transitions from primary to lower secondary schools in the whole of sub-Saharan Africa. The background paper is in two main sections: review of factors affecting transitions in sub-Saharan Africa, and case study analyses for Ghana and Rwanda with the following themes guiding the discussions: Theme 1: Access to education, progression and completion rates in primary and secondary schools; Theme 2: Trends and realities in secondary education: Equity in progression and transitions – from primary to lower secondary and upper secondary schools and equal opportunities for children with disabilities, members of religious and ethnic minorities and other forms or multiple cases of vulnerabilities; Theme 3: Learning outcomes, employability and well-being of youth with and without secondary education; Theme 4: Actionable recommendations to policymakers, implementers, donors and other stakeholders on how to improve transitions from primary to lower secondary for the marginalized populations.
Mathematica Policy Research, Inc.;
There is growing recognition that youth need more than formal or vocational education to thrive in school, work, and life. They also need life skills - a set of cognitive, personal, and interpersonal strengths that position them for success in their lives and livelihoods. To leverage the growing momentum and give youth access to these vital tools for success, the Partnership to Strengthen Innovation and Practice in Secondary Education (PSIPSE) supports grantee partners testing diverse approaches to strengthening life skills. The PSIPSE commissioned an in-depth study of 18 projects in 7 countries, uncovering actionable lessons on how to design, implement, assess, and scale youth life skills programming in low- and middle-income countries. The study is intended for practitioners and government officials interested in building, improving, and expanding work around life skills, as well as donors looking to advance this field and provide useful guidance to their grantees.
Mathematica Policy Research, Inc.;
There is growing recognition that youth need more than academic knowledge to transition successfully into employment and adulthood (Dupuy et al. 2018). They also need "life skills," a set of cognitive, personal, and interpersonal strengths that position them for success in their lives and livelihoods. Life skills can enhance young people's agency and resilience, improve their psychosocial well-being, and predict a range of long-term outcomes, including health, job performance, and wages (Kwauk et al. 2018; OECD 2018, Kautz et al. 2014). The Partnership to Strengthen Innovation and Practice in Secondary Education (PSIPSE), a donor collaborative, has invested in 18 projects to strengthen life skills in young people. This brief offers eight lessons based on the experiences of these projects—on the design, delivery, measurement, and scale-up of youth life skills programming in lowand middle-income countries (LMICs).
Mathematica Policy Research, Inc.;
There is growing recognition that youth need more than academic knowledge and technical expertise to transition successfully into employment and adulthood (Dupuy et al. 2018). They also need "life skills," a set of cognitive, personal, and interpersonal strengths that position them for success in their lives and livelihoods. Life skills can enhance young people's agency and resilience, improve their psychosocial well-being, and predict a range of long-term outcomes, including health, job performance, and wages (Kwauk et al. 2018; OECD 2018; Kautz et al. 2014). The Partnership to Strengthen Innovation and Practice in Secondary Education (PSIPSE), a donor collaborative, has invested in 18 projects that focus on developing life skills among youth (see left). Mathematica, the PSIPSE's learning partner, recently conducted an in-depth study of these projects. The study used interviews with implementing organizations, an extensive review of project documents and evaluation reports, and high-level literature and landscape scans to examine project experiences, set them in context, and draw out lessons for a range of stakeholders. This brief summarizes the lessons for government officials—on how to successfully devise, roll out, scale, and strengthen life skills policies for youth in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs).
The 'Rwanda Peace Building and Development Programme', begun in 2004, is designed to address challenges faced by communities and the Government, which include reintegrating demobilised soldiers, dealing with wounds re-opened by the gacaca, and (re)settling refugee returnees. The programme builds on a pilot project in 2001, in which Oxfam GB moved from short term humanitarian intervention to longer term development programming. The overall objective of this mid-term evaluation, from 2007, was to take stock of progress made towards realising objectives, in order to aw lessons for improving quality, future programming and sharing.
Rwanda stands at a critical point in its history. The country's people are seeking to rebuild a society shattered by war and a genocide in which one in eight Rwandans - Tutsi and Hutu opponents of the government's extremist policies - was killed, and which further led to the outflow of over one and a half million refugees. Since the 1994 conflict, poverty levels have increased dramatically, the health-care and education systems have collapsed, and the economic infrastructure has been shattered. Conflict in Rwanda continues to have enormous destabilising effects on all the neighbouring countries, including the Democratic Republic of Congo, Burundi, Tanzania, and Uganda. There is an urgent need for peace, security, and poverty reduction.
There has been a vibrant policy framework for capacity building interventions to improve investment climate and business environment in Rwanda. This has affected the promotion of SMEs and entrepreneurship in Rwanda. But the effect and magnitude of capacity building interventions has not been studied. A survey of 414 SMEs in Rwanda indicates a considerable need large need (by more than 50 per cent f all SMEs) for capacity building interventions. More than 72 per cent of SMEs still tend to cluster in commerce and business. Finance and financial services tops the list of most binding capacity need (binding to 80.7 per cent of the firms) followed by training. Barriers to entrepreneurship and starting new business is risk by 20.3 per cent, financial constraints by 51.4 per cent, education 4 per cent and market conditions 10.4 per cent. Multiple institutions are involved in capacity building interventions but need to be better coordinated for better promotion of SMEs and entrepreneurship. There is still opportunity to diversify the types and location of SMEs
This evaluation is presented as part of the Effectiveness Review Series 2013/14, selected for review under the women's empowerment thematic area. This report documents the findings of a quasi-experimental evaluation carried out in March 2014 that sought to assess the impact of the activities of the 'Women's Economic Leadership through Horticulture Planting-Material Business' project.This project was implemented in four districts of Rwanda by Oxfam in partnershiop with Duterimbere, a local organization, between 2011 and 2014. The project aimed to strengthen women's capacity for engaging in the production of pineapple planting material, and thereby to enhance women's socio-economic status at household and community level, while also strengthening the capacity of the microfinance division of Duterimbere to provide finance and business services to women in the planting-material business.For more information, the data for this effectiveness review is available through the UK Data Service. Read more about the Oxfam Effectiveness Reviews.
BioMed Central Health Services Research;
Background: Nationally, health in Rwanda has been improving since 2000, with considerable improvement since 2005. Despite improvements, rural areas continue to lag behind urban sectors with regard to key health outcomes. Partners In Health (PIH) has been supporting the Rwanda Ministry of Health (MOH) in two rural districts in Rwanda since 2005. Since 2009, the MOH and PIH have spearheaded a health systems strengthening (HSS) intervention inthese districts as part of the Rwanda Population Health Implementation and Training (PHIT) Partnership. The partnership is guided by the belief that HSS interventions should be comprehensive, integrated, responsive to local conditions, and address health care access, cost, and quality. The PHIT Partnership represents a collaboration between the MOH and PIH, with support from the National University of Rwanda School of Public Health, the National Institute of Statistics, Harvard Medical School, and Brigham and Women's Hospital.Description of intervention: The PHIT Partnership's health systems support aligns with the World Health Organization's six health systems building blocks. HSS activities focus across all levels of the health system -- community, health center, hospital, and district leadership -- to improve health care access, quality, delivery, and health outcomes. Interventions are concentrated on three main areas: targeted support for health facilities, quality improvement initiatives, and a strengthened network of community health workers.Evaluation design: The impact of activities will be assessed using population-level outcomes data collected through oversampling of the demographic and health survey (DHS) in the intervention districts. The overall impactevaluation is complemented by an analysis of trends in facility health care utilization. A comprehensive costing project captures the total expenditures and financial inputs of the health care system to determine the cost of systems improvement. Targeted evaluations and operational research pieces focus on specific programmatic components, supported by partnership-supported work to build in-country research capacity.Discussion: Building on early successes, the work of the Rwanda PHIT Partnership approach to HSS has already seen noticeable increases in facility capacity and quality of care. The rigorous planned evaluation of the Partnership's HSS activities will contribute to global knowledge about intervention methodology, cost, and population health impact.